License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/9\/9a\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/9\/9a\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/6\/60\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/6\/60\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/2\/21\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/2\/21\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/3\/38\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/3\/38\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/7\/7d\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/7\/7d\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/8\/8c\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-7-Version-2.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-7-Version-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/8\/8c\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-7-Version-2.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-7-Version-2.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/9\/99\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-8-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-8-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/9\/99\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-8-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-8-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Research and education center within the National Institutes of Health.
Cute Pencil Clipart, Minecraft Bedrock Kelp Not Growing, Best Material For Commercial Stairs, Turtle Beach Elite Atlas Aero Software, Types Of Stairs Pdf, Which Statement Is Incorrect About Retention Pins, Bdo Mastery Brackets Gathering, Plastic Texture Seamless, Cartoon Holding Board, Best Keratin Serum For Hair, Mysleep Mattress Review, " />

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/9\/9a\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/9\/9a\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/6\/60\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/6\/60\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/2\/21\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/2\/21\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/3\/38\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/3\/38\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/7\/7d\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/7\/7d\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/8\/8c\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-7-Version-2.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-7-Version-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/8\/8c\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-7-Version-2.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-7-Version-2.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/9\/99\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-8-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-8-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/9\/99\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-8-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-8-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Research and education center within the National Institutes of Health.
Cute Pencil Clipart, Minecraft Bedrock Kelp Not Growing, Best Material For Commercial Stairs, Turtle Beach Elite Atlas Aero Software, Types Of Stairs Pdf, Which Statement Is Incorrect About Retention Pins, Bdo Mastery Brackets Gathering, Plastic Texture Seamless, Cartoon Holding Board, Best Keratin Serum For Hair, Mysleep Mattress Review, " />

skip to Main Content

how to measure waist size men

A person’s WHtR measures the distribution of body fat. For a woman, a healthy measurement is less than 31.5 inches (80 cm). Find the waist size of the man or boy using a measuring tape. A 2015 review of studies reported that people with a larger waistline might have a shorter life expectancy than people with a normal-sized waist. Other factors also play a role in increased abdominal fat, including: Although it is not possible to reduce fat in specific areas, any weight loss in people who carry excess fat can help. To figure out how jeans should fit, start by determining your size. In this article, we explain how to measure the waistline and the link between waist size and health. How much should I weigh for my height and age? According to the Heart Foundation, a healthy waistline size is: A person’s health may be at risk if their waist circumference is bigger. Find out how high the pant waist line rises. Genetics may help explain why some families are more likely to be “apple-shaped,” while others are more likely to be “pear-shaped.”. How to measure your waist Find the bottom of your ribs and the top of your hips. To find your waist measurement, first raise or remove your shirt, then stand up straight and exhale your breath. Measuring Men's Waist Sizes For Jeans. Knowing your waist size will allow you to buy jeans from any brand, no matter what sizing system they use. The NHLBI indicate that BMI ranges for most adults aged 18–65 are as follows: BMI does not distinguish between weight carried as fat or muscle or the distribution of fat on the body. Generally, the waist is measured by placing the end of the measuring tape on the belly button and bringing the tape around the back to meet the end. To calculate WHtR, measure the waist circumference and height in inches. In turn, a 2015 article in Circulation indicated that inflammation is a contributing factor and increases the risk of several health conditions, including: Several factors influence a person’s waist size. Usually, your size will be your waist size followed by … This is especially true for apple-shaped women, who face a higher heart attack risk than apple-shaped men. For example, athletes may have a high BMI but may not be at higher risk of certain health conditions. For example, a waist that measures 30” will convert to sizes 29-31 in women’s jeans and a size 28 in men’s jeans. Waist Size Calculator. Your waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio give you a much better indication of your overall health than simply looking at the numbers on the scale. When you buy a new pair of jeans, you want them to fit perfectly. Jeans size = Waist size printed in jeans. What if you do not have a measuring tape? For all the denim brands we evaluated, jeans waist size measurements vary between 1” and 3” over the labeled size. Waist-to-hip-ratio is a quick and easy way to check how much weight you carry around your middle. Do SARS-CoV-2 mutations affect its transmissibility? You can have a healthy BMI and still have too much tummy fat, meaning you're still at risk of developing these diseases. Measure around the largest part of the head, with tape above brow. Button up the jeans and spread them out on a flat surface, removing any wrinkles. What should my waist and hip measurements be? For those that are apple-shaped, this extra weight will accumulate on the abdomen. Size Chart Men's standard size, height, chest girth and waist circumference. In this article, learn about the apparent benefits and potential risks of using a waist trainer. Use a tape measure to check the distance around the smallest part of your waist, just above your belly button. Check the number on the tape measure right after you exhale. A person’s waistline measurement reveals more information than just their clothing size. Your waist size can both help you choose the perfect pair of jeans and keep track of your weight, and it's really easy to measure. Men’s US sizes for suit jackets, coats and blazers are based on the chest width and your height. The waist-height ratio is calculated as waist measurement divided by height measurement, W ÷ H, in centimeters. Most men and boys trousers have a natural waistline about 7.5 or 10 cm (3 or 4 inches) above the hip bones. The number refers to your chest measurement, and the descriptive word refers to the length of the jacket. To measure your waist: find the bottom of your ribs and the top of your hips wrap a tape measure around your waist, midway between these points breathe out naturally before taking the measurement For tips from our reviewer on reading the tape measure, scroll down! While the waistline is a key measure of a person’s overall health risk, a person should also consider their waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI). At 59 inches tall, a healthy waist size for you would be under 29.5 inches. Once that is done, follow the below steps: 1. Find out how to measure your inseam length & waist measurement to get your proper pants size. how to measure,waist,front rise, back rise, best fitting, jeans,denim,raw denim. To accurately measure your waist circumference, follow these steps: Locate your upper hip bone. Older adults may have a lower BMI due to low muscle mass, yet they may be at higher risk of heart disease and other illnesses. At 5'9" you are 69" tall, and half that amount is the cut off for healthy to normal waist size, so that would be 34.5 inches. A study in Strokenotes that indicators of abdominal fat distribution, especially WHtR, have a greater association with stroke risk in both men and women than BMI. More than 34.5 inches indicates a greater predisposition for health risks. Some jeans come sized in inches (such as 26, 27, 28), which refers to the waist measurement, while others are sized in numbers (2, 4, 6). Assessing Your Weight | Healthy Weight, Nutrition, and Physical … This article has been viewed 2,130,450 times. How to Measure the Waistline for Men | Livestrong.com For choosing the right bib shorts size the key body measurement is the circumference of your waist (A) . It may seem huge, but many men wear regular pants and jeans below their waist or tucked under a waistline overlap, so the number size of the waist of their regular pants … According to Harvard Health, visceral abdominal fat is less common among those in Mediterranean countries. By using our site, you agree to our. This risk goes up with a waist size that is greater than 35 inches for women or greater than 40 inches for men. Make sure that the measuring tape is straight all the way around and is not twisted anywhere, especially in the back. Last Updated: July 6, 2020 A person can measure their waist with a tape measure. Consequently, some individuals are, therefore, more likely to store fat around their middle than on their thighs. The important size is half your height. Learn how to find your healthy weight. Next, measure the length of the jeans from the inner seam to the bottom corner and note down the second number. "The good news is I finally learned how to measure my waist. It's usually a little bit above your navel. Sedentary people tend to have more abdominal fat than those who are more active throughout the day. It may not, therefore, provide an accurate assessment of a person’s health in some instances. You can find the proper spot by placing your hands around your waist, squeezing slightly, and then moving your fingers downward until you feel the top curve of your hips. BMI is another useful measurement when it comes to bodyweight and health. How To Measure Your Waist Size Tip: For a quick way to see if underwear will fit, take a pair of underwear and wrap the waist around your neck. Different backgrounds and genetics can cause you to have a larger waist, while still being perfectly healthy. You could use a piece of string, then measure the piece of string with a ruler. If you want to track changes, measure your waist monthly. A 37 inch waist is perfectly healthy for a man, but if you're a woman with a 37 inch waist, you still may be in good health. If you don't have one, use a length of twine, then measure that with the tape measure you've got in the garage. What is the correct way to measure your waist? Measure your waist size at the belly button line, and buy at least one size larger. How to measure your waist A: materials needed: A flexible measuring tape (cloth tape), or if you don't have one you could use a string to determine the circumference and measure the string with a ruler afterwards. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Excessive visceral fat increases inflammation in the body. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute NHLBI), Relationship between waistline and health, Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC), Gut bacteria can help rebuild the immune system. To find their ideal weight, an individual must look at a number of factors, including gender and activity level. Not exactly. 2. Measuring your waist. Number of inches equals glove size. While waistline measurements and BMI can give some indication as to a person’s health and risk of health problems, they do not paint the whole picture. References Sleeve. A 2018 observational study indicated that waist circumference and WHtR could be good indicators of high blood pressure (hypertension) risk. Jean sizes are based on your waist measurement in inches. Remove or … By following simple instructions, taking a waistline measurement with a tape measure is easy. While in this position, hold the end of a tape measure to your navel and wrap it around the narrowest section of your waist. Most men and boys trousers have a natural waistline about 7.5 or 10 cm (3 or 4 inches) above the hip bones. How are inches read when measuring my waist? This really depends on the style of the pants. Your waist is the soft, flesh section between the top of your hips and the bottom of your rib cage, which is just above your belly button. The following guidelines are important in measuring for proper fit. That’s because the circumference of your neck about half of your waist. Waist: From one side to the other, measure across the back waistband. This article will show you how to quickly take your waist measurements and how to interpret those numbers. If your measurement is outside of the healthy range, then you may want to talk to your doctor. Find the best fits for you and pick your favorite pair of jeans. A 2018 population-based cohort study notes that waist circumference is an important predictor of several types of cancers in men, including colorectal cancer and gastroesophageal cancer. Both of these factors mean that the body’s blood sugar levels increase. All rights reserved. Remove or wear thin clothing around the abdomen and hips. Measure your natural waist. Then, divide the waist circumference by height, and multiply by 100. Divide your waist measurement by your hip measurement to get your waist to hip ratio. Individuals who have either overweight or obesity are at higher risk of developing conditions such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes. A larger waistline may be due to having excess weight around the abdomen. achieving and maintaining a healthy weight, https://www.heartfoundation.org.au/your-heart/know-your-risks/healthy-weight/waist-measurement, https://www.wcrf-uk.org/uk/here-help/health-tools/how-measure-your-waist, https://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/849.aspx?CategoryID=51, https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm, consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. Suit and sport coat sizes have one number and one descriptive word (for example, 38 short, 40 regular, 42 long). Convert to hat size using the size chart above. Waist : Measure the narrowest part of the waist. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. Wrap the measuring tape around your waist. Give all measurements in inches. Men who have too much belly fat are at a higher risk of getting cardiovascular disease and diabetes. People come in all shapes and sizes so average waist size is irrelevant. Hold the tape measure between the top of the hipbone and the bottom of the ribs. Jean sizes are based on your waist measurement in inches. Categories How To's Tags chest , FIT , HOW TO , inseam , overarm , Suit measurements , tailor , waist Your website cleared the fog! Hand (Gloves and Mittens) Measure around the knuckles with hand flat (exclude thumb). This, in turn, increases the risk of certain health conditions. Find the waist size of the man or boy using a measuring tape. The sizes of brands vary, so always look closely at the size charts to make sure you’ll get the right one based on your body measurement. A person is at higher risk of developing central obesity-related illness if they have a WHtR of over 50%. The portal vein brings blood from the intestines to the liver. Your waist measurement compares closely with your body mass index (BMI), and is often seen as a better way of checking your risk of developing a chronic disease. It is important to discuss individual risk and management techniques with a doctor. To measure it yourself: Stand up straight and breathe out. Wear the bottom (jeans/pants/joggers) that you plan to use with the belt. 17" measurement=34" waist). Multiply this figure by two, and you'll have … Make sure the tape measure is snug and parallel to the ground. Particularly in cases where you might be ordering jeans online or through a catalog and won’t be able to try them on before making a purchase, it will be useful to know what Lay the measuring tape against their skin and wrap it around their waistline until the end overlaps. Bend your elbow and put your hand on your hip. Size Chart Men's standard size, height, chest girth and waist circumference. Lay them flat, with the front and back creased smooth. The method of measurement is the same for men and women. If the two ends just meet together, then there is a very good chance that it’s your size. {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/0\/0a\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-1-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-1-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/0\/0a\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-1-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-1-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/9\/9a\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/9\/9a\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-2-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/6\/60\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/6\/60\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-3-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/2\/21\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/2\/21\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-4-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/3\/38\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/3\/38\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-5-Version-3.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

License: Creative Commons<\/a>
\n<\/p>


\n<\/p><\/div>"}, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/7\/7d\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg\/v4-460px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/7\/7d\/Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg\/aid1375483-v4-728px-Measure-Your-Waist-Step-6-Version-2.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

Back To Top