for parenthetical sentences that consist of an incomplete sentence or list. End the quote with its appropriate punctuation mark, and after that, inside parentheses, give the last name of the author and the page number or range without a comma. If the question is not part of the quote, it goes outside. Read our earlier post on what you can omit when quoting sources. For example. ¶ Over 1.5 million copies sold! Why do periods and commas go inside quotation marks in MLA style? The submit button will be disabled until you complete the CAPTCHA. For example. Example of a Long Quotation 2nd ed., Hartley and Marks, 1999. Digital typographers can close up the gap: In British style, spacing issues are less pronounced because it uses single quotation marks instead of double, and commas and periods are placed outside the quotation marks: ‘You’ve got to be carefully taught’, wrote Oscar Hammerstein II. Now, you might notice how we use periods inside the parentheses while abbreviating “e.g.,” and “etc.” As long as the abbreviations are necessary and correct, there’s no problem using periods within any parenthetical list or statement. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. MLA: Block Quotations. Find it. Place periods inside of the parentheses when parenthetical material consists of a complete sentence. For example, if the sentence is a question, but the words in … Often found within newspapers to save printing space, an ellipsis formally conveys how part of the sentence or quote is missing from the original statement. Writing a sentence without an opening and a closing parenthesis is like writing a sentence without a period. For example. If the quote is not a question or exclamation, use a comma and not a period before the second quotation marks. 4th ed., Pearson, 2000. In British usage, they can go either inside or outside (in the same way as questions marks and exclamation points in American style, see below). Inside. Julio Cortázar wrote many short stories, including ‘La noche boca arriba’, ‘Casa tomada’, and ‘Babas del diablo’. Lastly, we can use parentheses to disclose official acronyms or abbreviations for titles or proper names. Yagoda also points to the inconsistency of the method used in the United States, which places “other punctuation marks—semicolons, colons, exclamation points, question marks, dashes” outside quotation marks. She reported that the boss was, in her words, "miffed." Does Dr. Lim always say to her students, "You must work harder"? Outside of periods and commas, we can use question marks or exclamation points (or “exclamation marks” for British English) wherever necessary inside parentheses. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016. George Craig on May 27, 2010 2:00 am. “The Rise of ‘Logical Punctuation’.” Slate, 12 May 2011, www.slate.com/articles/life/the_good_word/2011/05/the_rise_of_logical_punctuation.html. For example, Parentheses are also necessary for writing chronological lists or phone numbers. If the question is part of the quote, the mark goes inside the quotation marks. ————— I was taught to place punctuation inside quotes — either double or single. It is also the same for instances where a title within a title comes at the end of a sentence: A new approach to Flannery O’Connor’s short story can be found in the essay “The Uncanny Theology of ‘A Good Man Is Hard to Find.’”. She reported that the boss was, in her words, "miffed." Indent the entire quote 1 inch from the left margin. MLA: “A complete sentence with sourced information (Surname 201). Note that a period becomes a comma if the quote isn't at the end of the sentence: When I told them "I'm moving out," they were shocked. The CMS goes on to describe exceptions for textual studies and British usage, but for practical purposes, writers of American English can go with the “ALWAYS put a period INSIDE the quotes” mantra. For this particular example, it’s correct to treat parenthetical material as an independent clause and use a period inside the brackets. Write it. 16th ed., U of Chicago P, 2010. White, writing in 1959, noted that “[t]ypographical usage dictates the comma be inside the marks, though logically it seems not to belong there” (36). "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8). This rule applies even if only one quoted word ends the sentence. This rule applies even if only one quoted word ends the sentence. No period … Sources: If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. The first mention of source: (Surname, 2020). Thus: He said, "We need to tell the boss right away." Most APA citations parenthesize the author’s last name and year of publication (separated with a comma). However, we can also use parentheses to clarify terminology or provide formal, scientific names. In American writing, commas and periods almost always go inside quotation marks. ... Each element is followed by a comma or a period (as shown), though the final element in a Works Cited entry is always followed by a period. Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks. If parentheses enclose a whole sentence, place the period inside of the closing parenthesis. Why do periods and commas go inside quotation marks in MLA style? Periods Come Inside With only one exception, the period always comes inside closing quotation marks. (Make sure that the period following the title appears inside the closing quotation mark.) The MLA Handbook notes, “By convention, commas and periods that directly follow quotations go inside the closing quotation marks” (88). All parenthetical citations within the MLA style follow these rules: Citation occurs at the end of a sentence. Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at … ¶ It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound, definitive advice. If a period or comma belongs to the quote, you put it inside of the quotation marks: They said, "No, you have to submit it to the Board for approval." Luckily, when it comes to periods and commas, the answer to whether they go inside or outside the quotation mark is much simpler. If adding accessory content is important for tone, try reconstructing the sentence into two statements or incorporating footnotes or endnotes. APA: “A complete sentence with sourced information (Surname, p. 201). Periods and parentheses are two of the most basic punctuation marks to master for the English language. However, using parentheses in this manner is somewhat uncommon for formal writing. In American English, periods and commas always go inside the closing quotation mark; semicolons, colons, asterisks, and dashes always go outside the closing quotation mark; and question marks and exclamation points require that you analyze the sentence and make a decision based on context. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed. The period at the end of the quotation comes before your in-text citation as opposed to after, as it does with regular quotations. APA: “A complete sentence with the second mention of a source (p. 201). 1. At the MLA, we never insert a period after a title ending in a question mark or exclamation point, but we insert a comma if doing so makes a sentence easier to read—for example, when such a title is one item in a series or when the title is contained in a nonrestrictive clause: But when possible, we prefer to reword: For example, note numbers are omitted, end-of-line hyphenation is not reproduced, and double quotation marks in the source are converted to single marks.1 The imperative to transcribe the wording of quotations exactly, in other words, is compatible with conventions for integrating them into one’s own prose. We call parenthetical sentences “accessory” because we should be able to remove the bracketed clause without obscuring the sentence’s meaning. There are also times when parenthetical sentences occur outside of a complete sentence. The Chicago Manual of Style Online is the venerable, time-tested guide to style, usage, and grammar in an accessible online format. Periods Come Inside With only one exception, the period always comes inside closing quotation marks. All other punctuation marks—semicolons, colons, question marks, and exclamation points—go outside a closing quotation mark, except when they are part of the quoted material (89). Thus, in the following sentence, the comma is placed after taught: “You’ve got to be carefully taught,” wrote Oscar Hammerstein II. The standard rule in American punctuation is that periods go inside quotation marks, as do most commas, even if the punctuation is not part of the quote. Periods and commas are placed outside the prime and double prime marks. Some are included within the quotation marks, if it makes sense, and other are outside of it. In this case, parenthetical sentences do not occur within another whole sentence. This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Place a question mark or exclamation point within closing quotation marks if the punctuation applies to the quotation itself. #1. In British English, we treat periods and commas the same way. If a citation in parentheses follows the quotation, the period follows the citation. 3. Basic in-text citations for MLA: First mention or direct quote from the source: (Surname 201). According to the film critic, "One of the most widely acclaimed actors in history, Humphrey Bogart, is quoted as saying, 'I don't like acting.'" Likewise, a terminal ellipsis implies that the whole statement continues for a while longer. There are no quotation marks around the quotation. For instance, He said, “I’m going to the mall.” However, this is not the case for all end punctuation marks. In American writing, commas and periods almost always go inside quotation marks. The final period or comma goes inside the quotation marks, even if it is not a part of the quoted material, unless the quotation is followed by a citation. For standard abbreviations, such as “pacific time zone,” enclose “PT” with parentheses when necessary. Those who prefer the British style argue, as does Ben Yagoda in Slate, that “[i]nsinuating a period or comma within the unit alters it in a rather underhanded manner.” It’s important to note, however, that other conventions for altering the typographic display of quotations exist. For example. This is a paraphrase ("Trouble" 22). Be the first to read new posts and updates about MLA style. Use periods outside of parentheses when parenthetical material consists of a dependent sentence clause or list. According to the OWL MLA Formatting and Style Guide at Purdue University, the punctuation (such as a period or comma) should go inside the quotation marks when the punctuation is part of the quote, or outside the quotation marks when the punctuation is not part of the quote. However, using parentheses or em-dashes too often is distracting for readers. I can be found on Linkedin. In American usage, commas and periods at the end of quotes always go inside the quotation marks. should appear after the parenthetical citation; Question marks/exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are part of the quote, but after the parenthetical citation if they are not. In journalism, the default style guide is AP style. For example. MLA: Block Quotations. Subsequent mentions of source: (p. 201) or (pp.201–202). For example. To write more fluidly, we recommend structuring the sentence as such: The second most common use of parentheses involves in-text citations, a formal writing practice that adheres to academic style guides like the American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual or the Modern Language Association (MLA) Handbook. Similarly, as shown in the Purdue Owl, a typical MLA citation may be, This phenomenon is best referred to as a “cumulative collaboration of evidence” (Pepper). This placement is traditional in the United States. Additionally, if you cite more than one source at a time, separate each citation with a semicolon (see below). Include the page number at the end of your block quote outside of the ending period. For example, First mention: “Senators disclose 2022 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).”, Subsequent mentions: “NASA prepares to negotiate the budget to meet their financial needs for 2022.”. Be sure to specify the source in the introduction phrase/sentence, which ends in either a colon or a period. American style guides such as Associated Press (AP), Modern Language Association (MLA) and The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago) all follow the American rule when it comes to commas and periods. For example. Get a subscription and … The Elements of Style. Regardless of the type of information you cite, all in-text citations occur at the end of a sentence while placing a period after the closing parenthesis. For example. Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. The point of conventions is that they provide common tools for understanding, so if you are preparing material in a British context, follow British rules. White. The Elements of Typographic Style. Example of a Long Quotation But if you include a direct quote, be sure to add the abbreviation “p.” for “page” with the page number. the quotation within double quotation marks and incorporate it into your text. This means that periods and commas are placed INSIDE quotation marks; all other punctuation marks are placed OUTSIDE. Available for fall 2020 and spring 2021 courses. It works with many types of citation styles such as MLA, Chicago, and AAA, among others. This is a paraphrase ("Trouble" 22). In either case, the question mark and exclamation point are exclusive to the parenthetical clause, and the rest of the sentence should end with a period. #2. The ellipsis consists of three periods (also known as dot-dot-dot). The MLA Handbook notes, “By convention, commas and periods that directly follow quotations go inside the closing quotation marks” (88). But the editors of The Chicago Manual of Style note that “[e]xceptions” to the British style “are widespread” (309), so in terms of consistency, neither approach is better than the other. MLA: “A complete sentence with the second mention of a source (201). 1. A new approach to Flannery O’Connor’s short story can be found in the essay ‘The Uncanny Theology of “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”’. Alanna specializes in data and news reporting and enjoys writing about art, culture, and STEM-related topics. In our case, “e.g.,” means “exempli gratia” (‘for example’) and “etc.” means “et cetera” (‘and other things’). In other words, in the predigital era, when fonts were fixed-width, setting a period or comma outside the quotation marks would have created an unsightly gap: But Robert Bringhurst, writing in the era of digital fonts, maintains that it generally “makes no typographic difference” if quotation marks “follow commas and periods or precede them” (87). Thus: He said, "We need to tell the boss right away." Compose bold, clear, mistake-free writing with Grammarly's AI-powered writing assistant. The only exception for terminal punctuations occurs when a sentence ends with a formal abbreviation or special character. 1959. We use periods to mark the end of a sentence and parentheses to insert additional content. ), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. Periods stay outside of parentheses for parenthetical sentences that consist of an incomplete sentence or list. Subsequent mentions or direct quotes from the same source: (201). As you might have noticed, parentheses consist of two brackets: The standard rule for parentheses is that they all must open and close. > When a sentence ends in a single quote, is the period placed inside or outside of that single quote? When you're using quotation marks, it's hard to know where the adjacent punctuation is supposed to go. For example, Correct: “I’m a complete sentence (a fun one at that), but I’m also an example.”, Incorrect: “I’m a complete sentence, (a fun one at that), but I’m also an example.”, Like many sentences with parenthetical clauses, we can use parentheses similarly to commas or em-dashes. Feeling ready to master periods and parentheses for your writing? If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title.
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