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transgress in islam

[183], According to the Albert Kennedy Trust, one in four young homeless people identify as LGBT due to their religious parents disowning them. ): to transgress the bounds of prudence. between heterosexuality and homosexuality." Ali Hili reports that "since the 2003 invasion more than 700 people have been killed because of their sexuality." [103] A painting by Riza Abbasi with homo-erotic qualities shows the ruler enjoying such delights. There are numbers of Muslim LGBT activists from different parts of the world. However, Turkish sources deny these stories.[101]. [57], In modern times, despite the formal disapproval of religious authority, the segregation of women in Muslim societies and the strong emphasis on male virility leads some adolescent males and unmarried young men to seek sexual outlets with boys younger than themselves—in one study in Morocco, with boys in the age-range 7 to 13. It is regarded as a cure for homosexuality, which is punishable by death under Iranian law. He calls Iraq the "most dangerous place in the world for sexual minorities. [114][115] However, authors Lapidus and Salaymeh write that before the 19th century Ottoman society had been open and welcoming to homosexuals and that by the 1850s via European influence they began censoring homosexuality in their society. [64], The hadith collection of Bukhari (compiled in the 9th century from earlier oral traditions) includes a report regarding mukhannathun, effeminate men who were granted access to secluded women's quarters and engaged in other non-normative gender behavior:[7] This hadiths attributed to Muhammad's wives, a mukhannath in question expressed his appreciation of a woman's body and described it for the benefit of another man. [56], It was narrated that Ibn 'Abbaas said: "The Prophet said: "... cursed is the one who does the action of the people of Lot.". [111], In mystic writings of the medieval era, such as Sufi texts, it is "unclear whether the beloved being addressed is a teenage boy or God." As a gay cisgender (a person who’s gender identity matches the sex they were assigned at birth) female, there’s a lot about the transgender community and transgender rights that I didn’t know about or understand until I decided to do research. Depriving transgender people of their inheritance, humiliating, insulting or teasing them were also declared haraam. [17] In Iraq, where homosexuality is legal, the breakdown of law and order following the Second Gulf War allowed Islamist militias and vigilantes to act on their prejudice against gays, with ISIS gaining particular notoritety for the gruesome acts of anti-LGBT violence committed under its rule of parts of Syria and Iraq. [175] Previously, transgender people were isolated from society and had no legal rights or protections. [77][129], According to the International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) seven countries still retain capital punishment for homosexual behavior: Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iran, Afghanistan, Mauritania, Sudan, and northern Nigeria. Al-Nuwayri (1272–1332) in his Nihaya reports that Muhammad is "alleged to have said what he feared most for his community were the practices of the people of Lot (he seems to have expressed the same idea in regard to wine and female seduction). One level is "genetic inheritance." Jihad. The sacred texts "allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality." They teach that the male-female pair is the "basis for humanity's growth" and that homosexual acts "are forbidden by God". [295]:100, In an article "Same-sex Sexual Activity and Lesbian and Bisexual Women" Ali elaborates on homosexuality as an aspect of medieval Muslim culture. [52]:194–196, In addition to the Qur'an, Kugle refers to the benediction of Imam Al-Ghazali (the 11th-century Muslim theologian) which says. [8], During the early period, growth of a beard was considered to be the conventional age when an adolescent lost his homoerotic appeal, as evidenced by poetic protestations that the author still found his lover beautiful despite the growing beard. [68], A mukhannath who had dyed his hands and feet with henna was brought to the Prophet. End quote. [8] For example, Abu `Isa Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi (compiling the Sunan al-Tirmidhi around C.E.884) wrote that Muhammad had indeed prescribed the death penalty for both the active and also the passive partner: Narrated by Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Prophet said: If you find anyone doing as Lot's people did, kill the one who does it, and the one to whom it is done. It is difficult to appreciate the different aspects of the Islamic policy with- out fully understanding these three principles. Neither this term nor the equivalent for "eunuch" occurs in the Quran, but the term does appear in the Hadith, the sayings of Muhammad, which have a secondary status to the central text. . [8] Preference for homosexual over heterosexual relations was regarded as a matter of personal taste rather than a marker of homosexual identity in a modern sense. [106] Khaled el-Rouayheb (2014) maintain that "much if not most of the extant love poetry of the period [16th to 18th century] is pederastic in tone, portraying an adult male poet's passionate love for a teenage boy". 1. The Safra Project's "ethos is one of inclusiveness and diversity.". [35][36][37][38] Homosexual relations between females are legal in Kuwait, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, but homosexual acts between males are illegal. [176] However, in May 2018, the Pakistani parliament passed a bill giving transgender individuals the right to choose their identity and correct their official documents, such as ID cards, driver license, and passports. While Iran has outlawed homosexuality, Iranian Shi'a thinkers such as Ayatollah Khomeini have allowed for transgender people to change their sex so that they can enter heterosexual relationships. And the answer of his people was no other than that they said: Turn them out of your town, surely they are a people who seek to purify (themselves). [155], In Algeria, Bangladesh, Chad,[26] Aceh province and Palembang city of South Sumatra province of Indonesia, [48] There are also several organizations for LGBT Muslims which support LGBT rights, and others which attempt conversion therapy.[49]. [127] Deep shame attaches to the passive partner. . Doing sex work, trans women are at higher risk of sexual abuse and violence. [10] Homoeroticism was idealized in the form of poetry or artistic declarations of love from one man to another. Supporters Pakistani religious party Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam rally near the Parliament to condemn a Supreme Court decision that acquitted Asia Bibi, a … The men are held and allegedly tortured in concentration camps. [144], In Malaysia, homosexual acts are illegal and punishable with jail, fine, deportation, whipping or castration. 4. pass beyond (limits or boundaries) Familiarity information: TRANSGRESS used as a verb is uncommon. 1. act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises. 12 June 2016 - At least 49 people were killed and 50 injured in. Despite pushback from citizens in the LGBTQ+ community, Brunei prime minister's office produced a statement explaining Brunei's intention for carrying through with the law. Therefore, Islam can be described as "a religion that positively assesses diversity in creation and in human societies." "No: 134, 12 June 2016, Press Release Regarding the Terrorist Attack in Orlando City of the US", "Foreign Ministry of UAE gives condemns Orlando shooting", "Muslim Americans rush to condemn Orlando massacre", "Muslim leaders condemn Florida massacre, brace for backlash", "Several vigils are planned around Southern California for the Orlando shooting victims", "Tucson mosque condemns shootings in Orlando", "Metro Detroit Muslims strongly condemn Orlando shooting", "Harrisburg mosque holds prayer vigil for Orlando victims", "Orlando Muslims turn to prayer after shooting puts community 'on edge, "Muslim and LGBT community hold vigil for Orlando victims in Hartford", "Local Muslim community condemns Orlando nightclub shooting", "Milwaukee mosque holds prayer vigil for Orlando shooting victims", "Fort Pierce Mosque in Florida Condemns Attack", "Muslim community condemns Orlando attack, calls for blood donations", "British Muslim parents oppose LGBT lessons in primary school", "Muslim Alliance for Sexual and Gender Diversity", "LGBT Muslims told to choose religion or sexuality", "My LGBT-friendly mosque saved me from being radicalised", "Being gay and muslim: 'death is your repentance, "What you should know about being LGBT and Muslim, from a leading LGBT Muslim group", "Bosnian LGBTI Activists Demand: Equality Now! Moreover, trans women face employment discrimination due to their wrong identification cards that are not being corrected by the government agencies. I had the pleasure of having a wonderful conversation with a Muslim transwoman named Skye-Heather. Instead, trans women are being arrested and put in jail for up to one year for having same sex intercourse. The sultanate currently has a moratorium in effect on death penalty. "[292], Marhuq Fatima Khan in a chapter "Queer, American, and Muslim: Cultivating Identities and Communities of Affirmation," says that "Queer Muslims employ a few narratives to enable them to reconcile their religious and sexual identities." [35][159][40][41], The Ottoman Empire (predecessor of Turkey) decriminalized homosexuality in 1858. [5] The Abbasid ruler Al-Amin (809–813) was said to have required slave women to be dressed in masculine clothing so he could be persuaded to have sex with them, and a broader fashion for ghulamiyyat (boy-like girls) is reflected in literature of the period. However there is no sin for those who choose not to marry, as long as they will not transgress against Allah’s limits and fall into the forbidden acts. Gay Rights Protection Resolution Passes, Hailed As 'Historic Moment, "UN issues first report on human rights of gay and lesbian people", "Muslim attitudes about LBGT are complex", "LGBT people 'being made homeless due to religion, "The Arab world in seven charts: Are Arabs turning their backs on religion? [74] Where capital punishment is prescribed and a particular method is recommended, the methods range from stoning (Hanbali, Maliki), to the sword (some Hanbalites and Shafi'ites), or leaving it to the court to choose between several methods, including throwing the culprit off a high building (Shi'ite). In 2009 and 2013, the Bangladeshi Parliament refused to overturn Section 377. [98], Other famous examples of homosexuality include the Aghlabid Emir Ibrahim II of Ifriqiya (ruled 875–902), who was said to have been surrounded by some sixty catamites, yet whom he was said to have treated in a most horrific manner. To act in violation of (the law, for example). You’ll be automatically logged in 5 seconds. After Alam stepped down, subsequent leaders failed to sustain the organization and it began a process of legal dissolution in 2011. [53], Only one passage in the Quran prescribes a strictly legal position. unpunished. [8][12] Following Greek precedents, the Islamic medical tradition regarded as pathological only this latter case, and showed no concern for other forms of homosexual behavior. Believing that transgenders are dearer to God, some Muslim rulers appointed them as intercessors in royal palaces, including those … [18] In Afghanistan, Brunei, Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, parts of Somalia,[note 1] Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, homosexual activity carries the death penalty or prison sentences. "[15][88], Some Islamic & Western scholars argue that in the course of the Quranic Lot story, homosexuality in the modern sense is not addressed, but that the destruction of the "people of Lot" was a result of breaking the ancient hospitality law and sexual violence, in this case the attempted rape of men. Imam al-Baqir, the fifth Imam, (‘a) said: "There are three types of transgressions: the one which Allah, the Exalted, forgives, the one He does not forgive, and that one which He does not ignore. The beautiful religion of Islam never stresses on hardships or giving up on social life; rather a balanced life is encouraged and taught. The political system of Islam has been based on three principles, viz., Tawheed (Oneness of God), Risalat (Prophet hood) and Khilafat (Caliphate). The report found that thirteen countries or regions impose the death penalty for "same-sex sexual acts" with reference to sharia-based laws. Following is material from two chapters dealing with the present: Rusmir Musić in a chapter "Queer Visions of Islam" said that "Queer Muslims struggle daily to reconcile their sexuality and their faith." "Sexual relations between consenting adult persons of the same sex in private are not prohibited as such. She observes that "queer and trans people are sometimes treated as defective or deviant," and she adds that it is "vital not to assume that variation implies imperfection or disability. [174], In Pakistan, transgender people make up 0.005 percent of the total population. When both finished their turns, one told the other: “shameless practices have ruined our city.” The other man nodded and said, “You and I are the city’s blessed seniors, what then do you expect from others?”[99], Mehmed the Conqueror, the Ottoman sultan living in the 15th century, European sources say "who was known to have ambivalent sexual tastes, sent a eunuch to the house of Notaras, demanding that he supply his good-looking fourteen-year-old son for the Sultan's pleasure. [1][2][3][4] Some hadith collections also condemn homosexual and transgender acts,[5][1][6][7] prescribing death penalty for male homosexual intercourse. Transgression - Arabic meanings: التجاوز - Definition & Synonyms English to Arabic dictionary gives you the best and accurate Arabic translation and meanings of Transgression. He, along with other queer Muslims who left the old Al-Fitrah Foundation founded a new organization in 2018 called Al-Ghurbaah Foundation. Bauer continues that "Although contemporary Islamist movements decry homosexuality as a form of Western decadence, the current prejudice against it among Muslim publics stems from an amalgamation of traditional Islamic legal theory with popular notions that were imported from Europe during the colonial era, when Western military and economic superiority made Western notions of sexuality particularly influential in the Muslim world. It is internal – it’s something you feel and just know that you were born into the wrong body. [46][47] LGBT anti-discrimination laws have been enacted in Albania, Kosovo, and Northern Cyprus. However, homosexual relationships were generally tolerated in pre-modern Islamic societies,[9][10] and historical records suggest that these laws were invoked infrequently, mainly in cases of rape or other "exceptionally blatant infringement on public morals". However, the constitutional equal protections for transgender people is still an area of the law which is evolving. It was founded in October 2001 by Muslim LBT women. [8] This trend is illustrated by the story of Mahmud of Ghazni (971–1030), the ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire, and his cupbearer Malik Ayaz. Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors The Clear Quran, Dr. Mustafa Khattab Fight in the cause of Allah ˹only˺ against those who wage war against you, but do not exceed the limits. ", "Povećan broj slučajeva kršenja ljudskih prava LGBTI osoba - BUKA Magazin", "Norwegian Embassy supports Sarajevo Open Centre's Pink Report", "What It's Like To Pray At A Queer-Inclusive Mosque", "Queer and going to the mosque: 'I've never felt more Muslim than I do now, "Islamic scholars experience diversity of Muslim practices at U of T summer program", "Affirming mosques help gay Muslims reconcile faith, sexuality", "Over 100 LGBTI people won in yesterday's US midterm elections", "21 LGBT Muslims Who Are Changing the World", "Same-sex Sexual Activity and Lesbian and Bisexual Women", "A Jihad For Love - A Film by Parvez Sharma", https://filmthreat.com/reviews/breaking-fast/, https://www.metroweekly.com/2020/06/film-review-breaking-fast-is-an-engaging-gay-rom-com/, "In 'A Sinner in Mecca,' a Gay Director Ponders His Sexuality and Islamic Faith", "About UPF - UPF (Unity Productions Foundation)", "BBC3 'Free Speech' 'Can you be Gay and Muslim?' [153] The death penalty is implemented nationwide in Brunei, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Yemen; implemented locally in Nigeria (12 northern states), United Arab Emirates, and Somalia (southern parts); allowed by the law but not implemented in Afghanistan, Mauritania, and Pakistan; and was back then implemented through non-state courts by ISIS in parts of Iraq and Syria (now no longer existing). '", Other hadiths seem to permit homoerotic feelings as long as they are not translated into action. [18] In Uzbekistan, an anti-sodomy law, passed after World War II with the goal of increasing the birth rate, was invoked in 2004 against a gay rights activist, who was imprisoned and subjected to extreme abuse. ” He said: “ O my son, ask Allaah for Paradise and seek refuge in Him from Hell, for I heard the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, saying: “Among this … Thus, homosexuality can be seen as part of the "natural diversity in sexuality in human societies." The Quran contains several allusions to homosexual activity, which has prompted considerable exegetical and legal commentary over the centuries. [8][12] It was expected that many mature men would be sexually attracted to both women and adolescent boys (with different views about the appropriate age range for the latter), and such men were expected to wish to play only an active role in homosexual intercourse once they reached adulthood. Al-Ghurbaah Foundation also runs an inclusive mosque called Masjidul Ghurbaah which is open to anyone who wants to connect spiritually regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity, religion or belief. 12 February 2016 - Across Europe, gay refugees facing abuse at migrant asylum shelters are forced to flee shelters. t. e. The Quran, the holy book of Islam, contains verses believed by Muslims to be revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad at different times and under different circumstances – some exhorting violence against enemies and others urging restraint and conciliation. Maajid Nawaz vs Abdullah al Andalusi", "Implied Cases for Muslim Same-Sex Unions", Before Homosexuality in the Arab–Islamic World, 1500–1800, Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and literature, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=LGBT_in_Islam&oldid=991935568#Gender_variant_and_transgender_people, Articles with dead external links from February 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from January 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from May 2016, Articles lacking reliable references from September 2020, Articles with German-language sources (de), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, States which did not support either declaration, States that are not voting members of the United Nations, States which supported an opposing declaration in 2008 and continued their opposition in 2011, South Sudan, which was not a member of the United Nations in 2008, States which supported the LGBT rights declaration in the General Assembly or on the Human Rights Council in 2008 or 2011, Turkey Muslims: According to the survey conducted by the, 31 December 2013 - New Year's Eve arson attack on gay nightclub in. They believe "one has to avoid getting buggered precisely in order not to acquire a taste for it and thus become addicted. [57] A number of pre-modern texts discuss the possibility of sexual exploitation faced by young boys in educational institutions and warn teachers to take precautions against it. [122] Jordan, Bahrain, and-more recently-India have abolished the criminal penalties for consensual homosexual acts introduced under colonial rule. In some countries, views were becoming more conservative among younger people. [18], While friendship between men and boys is often described in sexual ways in classical Islamic literature, Khaled El-Rouayheb and Oliver Leaman have argued that it would be misleading to conclude from this that homosexuality was widespread in practice. [57] Greek homoerotic motifs may have accurately described pederastic practices in ancient Greece, but in their Islamic adaptations they tended to play a satirical or metaphorical rather than descriptive role. [184], In 2013, the Pew Research Center conducted a study on the global acceptance of homosexuality and found a widespread rejection of homosexuality in many nations that are predominantly Muslim. One of the leading LGBT reformatory Muslim organization is StraightWay Foundation, which was established in the United Kingdom in 2004 as an organization that provides information and advice for Muslims who struggle with homosexual attraction. [94] Schmitt (1992) identifies some twenty words in Arabic, Persian and Turkish to identify those who are penetrated. Only Islam can gather both ends in a harmonic mixture. For intersex in Islam, see, "Islam and sexual orientation" redirects here. Several anti-LGBT incidents have occurred: The coming together of "human rights discourses and sexual orientation struggles" has resulted in an abundance of "social movements and organizations concerned with gender and sexual minority oppression and discrimination. Skye-Heather wears hijab with the intention of becoming a niqabi. [205] These groups, like those based in socially conservative Christianity, are aimed at attempting to guide homosexuals towards heterosexuality. For her, it has been the complete opposite experience. In May 2016, a group of 51 Muslim majority states blocked 11 gay and transgender organizations from attending the 2016 High Level Meeting on Ending AIDS. 3. to go beyond the limits imposed by (a law, command, etc. Good people. [35][164][40][41], In Lebanon, courts have ruled that the country's penal code must not be used to target homosexuals, but the law has yet to be changed by parliament. So We delivered him and his followers, except his wife; she was of those who remained behind. v.intr. [35][39][40][41], Most Muslim-majority countries and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) have opposed moves to advance LGBT rights at the United Nations, in the General Assembly or the UNHRC. The government even provides up to half the cost for those needing financial assistance and a sex change is recognized on the birth certificate. In the Quran God has said: ... who oppress men with wrongdoing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through . It was founded in 1998 by Faisal Alam, a Pakistani American, and was registered as a nonprofit organization in the United States. Ressaleh Delgosha, Story No. "[76], Many Muslim scholars have followed a "don't ask, don't tell" policy in regards to homosexuality in Islam, by treating the subject with passivity. Although the tafsir literature does not interpret this as a homoerotic allusion, the connection was made in other literary genres, mostly humorously. [8][12] While playing an active role in homosexual relations carried no social stigma beyond that of licentious behavior, seeking to play a passive role was considered both unnatural and shameful for a mature man. In October 2018, Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad stated that Malaysia would not "copy" Western nations' approach towards LGBT rights, indicating that these countries were exhibiting a disregard for the institutions of the traditional family and marriage, as the value system in Malaysia is good. Imam Muhsin Hendricks is also considered as the world's first openly queer Imam. They have to make sure that this is not halal and will not please Allah. "[135] An Egyptian TV host was recently sentenced to a year in prison for interviewing a gay man in January 2019. Otherwise they will transgress and violate the guidelines set by Allah. In February 2019, the government of Indonesia – a country with a majority Muslim population – threatened to ban, The Muslim Debate Initiative (MDI) made up of Muslims "with experience in public speaking, apologetics, polemics, research and community work." It is in hijab that Skye-Heather feels the most beautiful, the most in-touch with her religion, and the most in-touch with being a woman. To support themselves financially, the only option often open to trans women is sex work, which is not safe for them either. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. [185], There are a number of Islamic ex-gay organizations, that is, those composed of people claiming to have experienced a basic change in sexual orientation from exclusive homosexuality to exclusive heterosexuality. Thereupon, the Prophet said: "Indeed they are your brothers, and they perform acts of worship by night [prayers] in the same way you do, but when they are alone, they transgress the Limits of Allaah. " Quranic Revisionism and the Case of Scott Kugle", https://carleton.ca/religion/people/aisha-geissinger/, "Review of Junaid Jahangir & Hussein Abdullatif's, "Homosexuality as cultural battleground in the Middle East: culture and postcolonial international theory", "The Ottoman empire's secular history undermines sharia claims", "The Tanzimat: Secular Reforms in the Ottoman Empire", "7 countries still put people to death for same-sex acts", "Fifa boss Sepp Blatter sorry for Qatar 'gay' remarks", "Loi n°001/PR/2017 Portant Code Pénal (Part 1)", "Loi n°001/PR/2017 Portant Code Pénal (Part 2)", "Egypt's LGBT Crackdown Expands to Stifle Journalists", "The Islamic State's shocking war on gays", "After Deoband, other Muslim leaders condemn homosexuality", "India Gay Sex Ban Is Struck Down. [128] In 2015, The New York Times reported that U.S. soldiers serving in Afghanistan were instructed by their commanders to ignore child sexual abuse being carried out by Afghan security forces, except "when rape is being used as a weapon of war". [9][73] The founder of the Hanafi school Abu Hanifa refused to recognize the analogy between sodomy and zina, although his two principal students disagreed with him on this point. 1. [179], Although it prohibits homosexuality, Iran is the only Muslim country in the Persian Gulf region that allows transgender people to express themselves by recognizing their self-identified gender and subsidizing reassignment surgery. With female same-sex sexual activity there is more focus on the punishment for the acts and the complications with the dower, compare to men where there is a focus on punishment but also the needs to ablutions and the effect of the act on possible marriage decisions.[295]:101. According to the Human Rights Campaign website, transmen and transwomen are accepted and recognized in Islamic cultures around the world. In the 1980s, both Egypt and Iran declared that gender reassignment surgery was declared acceptable under Islamic law. While not criminalising homosexuality, the country does not recognise same-sex marriage. I wholeheartedly and proudly accept Skye-Heather as my sister in Islam. Overall, Ali says that "there is no one Muslim perspective on anything. One of these standpoints results from "queer-friendly" interpretations of the Lot story and the Quran. As was customary everywhere until the nineteenth century, homosexuality was not viewed as a congenital disposition or 'identity'; the focus was on nonprocreative sexual practices, of which sodomy was the most controversial." [27][28][29][30][31][32] Same-sex sexual intercourse is legal in Albania, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Djibouti, Guinea-Bissau, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon,[note 2] Mali, Niger, Tajikistan, Turkey, most of Indonesia[note 3], the West Bank (State of Palestine), and Northern Cyprus. es v.tr. The two main reasons are failing to trust in Allah and falling victim to ones vain desires and thinking. . It blows my mind to know that a Muslim can legally have a gender reassignment surgery and still be tormented by people in the Islamic community unless they move. [13][14][15] In 1744, Muhammad bin Saud, the tribal ruler of the town of Diriyah, endorsed ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s mission and the two swore an oath to establish together a state run according to true Islamic principles. [20][21][22][23][24][25] In other countries, such as Algeria, Bangladesh, Chad,[26] Malaysia, Maldives, Pakistan, Qatar, Somalia, and Syria, it is illegal, and penalties may be imposed. "[105]:398 Although early Islamic writings such as the Quran expressed a mildly negative attitude towards homosexuality, laypersons usually apprehended the idea with indifference, if not admiration. In response, Sepp Blatter, head of FIFA, joked that they would have to "refrain from sexual activity" while in Qatar.

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