Saudi Aramco has been listed for public trading on 10 December 2019 and has a valuation as of US$2 trillion as of 12 December 2019. , In early July 2020, Saudi Arabia announced the nomination of its former Minister of Economy and Saudi royal court adviser, Mohammad Al-Tuwaijri, for the role of WTO’s director-general. ", Saudi Arabia has been severely criticized for failing to tackle money laundering and international terrorism financing. , On 16 November 2020, Saudi Aramco announced hiring banks to sell dollar-denominated bonds with the aim of improving finances after the coronavirus pandemic caused a sharp fall in the global demand for crude oil. The government also has set a target of creating 817,300 new jobs for Saudi nationals. USSABC Economic Brief: Saudi Arabia’s Tourism Sector Update November 2019 www.us-sabc.org Albara’a Alwazir Economist firstname.lastname@example.org Overview Tourism is one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world.  The stock market capitalisation of listed companies in Saudi Arabia was valued at $646 billion in 2005 by the World Bank. , According to the General Authority for Statistics (GASTAT), Saudi Arabia’s inflation accelerated to 6.2% in August 2020, as compared to the same month last year. , One problem is that the government Real Estate Development Fund (REDF)—which provides 81% of all loans for housing—had an 18-year waiting list for loans due to pent-up demand. Ma'aden's activities have focused on its active gold business which has grown in recent years to include the operation of five gold mines: Mahd Ad Dahab, Al Hajar, Sukhaybarat, Bulghah, and Al Amar. )—and US$2–3 billion in revenue. Most Saudi oil exports move by tanker from oil terminals at Ras Tanura and Ju'aymah in the Persian Gulf. King Abdullah Economic City, to be completed by 2020) in an effort to diversify the economy and provide jobs. With its absolute monarchy system of government, large state sector and supply of welfare benefits, the Saudi economy has been described as, a bewildering (at least to outsiders) combination of a feudal fealty system and a more modern political patronage one. , In January 2019 itself the kingdom sold bonds worth $7.5 billion. For 2000–04, the government aims at an average GDP growth rate of 3.16% each year, with projected growths of 5.04% for the private sector and 4.01% for the non-oil sector.  To deal with the key "land banking" issue the Housing Minister suggested in 2013 that landowners of vacant within city limits could be subject to a tax. A major new gas initiative promises to bring significant investment by U.S. and European oil companies to develop non-associated gas fields in three separate parts of Saudi Arabia.  According to a 2013 report by the International Monetary Fund, up to 1.6 million young nationals of the Persian Gulf countries (of which Saudi Arabia is the largest) will enter the workforce from 2013 to 2018, but the economies of those countries will have jobs in the private sector for less than half (approximately 600,000). , The main investing countries in Saudi Arabia in 2016 were the US, UAE, France, Singapore, Kuwait and Malaysia.  However, in 2017 Saudi Arabia was granted 664 patents by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) ranking the 23rd among 92 countries. , Another statistic conducted by Bayt.com shows that over a quarter (28%) of professionals believe that there is a skills shortage in their country of residence. (source: CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Source: USPTO website accessed 17 May 2011. On the other hand, Energy Minister Khalid Al Falih has long maintained that the Aramco's association with the state is a "win-win policy" for both parties. Ali Jarekji/Reuters. , Estimates of the number of Saudis below the poverty line range from between 12.7% and 25%. As a consequence, "the quota has now been dropped and replaced with a more flexible system. Obtaining a foreign investor license became more straightforward as it requires only two documents, and it is processed in three hours..  In 1960, OPEC was created with Saudi Arabia as one of its founding members.  They are being built at a cost of $60bn (2013)and are "expected to contribute $150bn to the economy". The number of Saudi patents registered in the United States between 1977 and 2010 came to 382—less than twelve per year—compared to 84,840 patents for South Korea or 20,620 for Israel during that period. Saudi Central Bank Governor Ahmed al-Kholifey told Reuters last week that Saudi economic growth in 2019 would be “no less than two percent.” The Saudi economy grew by 2.2 percent last year, recovering from a contraction in 2017. The economy of Saudi Arabia is one of the top twenty economies in the world, and the largest economy in the Arab world and the Middle East. , As of 2008, roughly two-thirds of workers employed in Saudi Arabia were foreigners, and in the private sector approximately 90%. However, the annual growth rates forecast for 2019 and 2020 are much lower than the 4% average expansion in the period 2006-2016. This aims at opening the real estate market to a wide range of investor. These units are offered to the public and traded on the Saudi Stock Exchange. According to Arab News columnist Abdel Aziz Aluwaisheg, "in almost every one of these areas, consumers have raised serious concerns about the performance of these privatized entities. In 2012, ICT sector spending was recorded at SAR 94 billion, with 13.9% annual growth, and reached approximately SAR 102 billion in 2013, with approximately 14% annual growth. . , As Vision 2030 has been recently adapted by the Saudi government several reforms has been undertaken including improving the business environment and reform in the financial sector. A 2005 survey by the Riyadh Chamber of Commerce found 77% of businessmen polled felt they had to 'bypass' the law to conduct their operations. With 189 member countries, staff from more than 170 countries, and offices in over 130 locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries. The real estate sector has been driven recently by strong local demand fundamentals and only a small amount by speculation. September 30, 2020. Another 40% of GDP comes from the private sector.  Where a foreign individual needs to have a normal legal residency status and a permit from the Ministry of the Interior to own a land or property.. ]", World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, "Saudi Arabia's Youth and the Kingdom's Future", "Saudi Arabia needs private sector growth to stem youth unemployment, business leaders say", "Saudi Arabia leads Arab world in patents", "KSA ranks 23rd in number of patents granted by the US Patent and Trademark Office", "Saudi Arabia Granted 664 Patents in 2017; Double of All Arab Countries Combined", "Saudi Arabia Accused of Turning A Blind Eye To International Terrorism Financing By Global Watchdog", "Saudi Arabia has tenth lowest poverty rate worldwide, says World Bank", "Saudi Arabia's riches conceal a growing problem of poverty", "Saudi dissidents turn to YouTube to air their frustrations", "Mal3ob 3alena: Poverty in Saudi Arabia English Version", "A foreign Saudi plot to expose foreign poverty in foreign Saudi", "Poverty Hides Amid Saudi Arabia's Oil Wealth", "Poverty exists in Saudi Arabia too | The Observers", "Saudi film-makers enter second week of detention", "Nearly 50% citizens own houses in Saudi Arabia", "New mortgages to boost home ownership in Saudi Arabia", "Manufacturing booms in Saudi Arabia | Saudi Arabia News", "Rising Oil Prices Are Bad News for Saudi Arabia", "Saudi Arabia's Big Dreams and Easy Living Hit a Wall", "Saudis Reduce Oil Pricing in Sign Demand Recovery Struggling", "Saudi Arabia most improved economy for business", "Saudi Arabia sees most improvement in ease of doing business: World Bank", "Doing Business 2020: Saudi Arabia Accelerated Business Climate Reforms, Joins Ranks of 10 Most Improved", "Special Report: MEED 100 – The Middle East's top 100 listed companies in 2009 | Special Report", "Saudi Arabia issued 5 new foreign investor licenses a day in Q2", "Saudi Aramco to sell billions of dollars in international bonds", "Saudi Aramco plans debt market comeback with multi-tranche bond deal", "Saudi electronic market reaches $3.5 billion", Saudi Arabia Export, Import, Trade Balance, Council of Economic and Development Affairs, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (central bank), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Economy_of_Saudi_Arabia&oldid=991670980, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles needing additional references from February 2009, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing rewrite from June 2020, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, petroleum and petroleum products 90% (2012 est. , The e-commerce market was estimated at just over $1 billion in 2001. , In June 1993, Saudi Aramco absorbed the state marketing and refining company (SAMAREC), becoming the world's largest fully integrated oil company. Saudi Arabia’s economic freedom score is 62.4, making its economy the 83rd freest in the 2020 Index. Proven reserves, according to figures provided by the Saudi government, are estimated to be 260 billion barrels (41 km3), which is about one-quarter of world oil reserves. The country has the second-largest proven petroleum reserves, and is the largest exporter of petroleum in the world. Saudi Aramco (officially the Saudi Arabian Oil Co.), is a Saudi Arabian national petroleum and natural gas company based in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.  Headquartered in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco operates the world's largest single hydrocarbon network, the Master Gas System. During much of the 2000s, high oil prices enabled the government to post budget surpluses, boost spending on job training and education, infrastructure development, and government salaries. Saudi businessmen reported a decline in sales for 2018, blaming the government. Supporting the construction of 1.5 million homes by providing the required private capital. She said that while Saudi fiscal policy is more expansionary in 2019, leading to a pick-up in the non-oil sector, overall the OPEC cuts had a downward impact on the Kingdom’s economy. The products will include ethylene, propylene, aromatics, polyethylene, ethylene oxide, chlorine derivatives, and glycol.  The fishing villages of al-Jubail on the Persian Gulf and Yanbu on the Red Sea were developed. , The Saudi Arabian Basic Industries Corporation SABIC was established by a royal decree in 1976 to produce chemicals, polymers, and fertilizers.  Foreigners (being non-GCC nationals) are entitled to ownership and investment of in real estate with some conditions.  Mean wages were $14.74 per man-hour in 2009. GDP in Saudi Arabia averaged 254.32 USD Billion from 1968 until 2019, reaching an all time high of 792.97 USD …  As of 2013, due to the rapid population growth of Saudi Arabia, per capita income in Saudi was "a fraction of that of smaller Persian gulf neighbors", even less than petroleum-poor Bahrain. Saudi Arabia's economy slowed sharply in the second quarter amid oil output cuts by the world's largest crude exporter, ... down from annual growth of 1.66% in the first quarter of 2019. In 1933, the Saudi government signed an oil concession agreement with Standard Oil Company of California. GDP growth is anticipated to slow in 2019 to 0.8%, as the drag from oil production cuts is compounded by the worsening global outlook since the early summer.  Press reports and private estimates as of 2013 "suggest that between 2 million and 4 million" of the country's native Saudis live on "less than about $530 a month" – about $17 a day – considered the poverty line in Saudi Arabia. Governmental efforts to achieve greater economic diversification—together with increased foreign investment—evidenced by a new draft corporate law and an increased focus on privatisations across all sectors will shape policy. Another is that the REDF's maximum loan is 500,000 SR ($133,000), while in 2012 the average price for a small free-standing home in Riyadh is more than double that—1.23 million SR ($328,000). By the same token, the government bureaucracy is a maze of overlapping or conflicting power center under the patronage of various royal princes with their own priorities and agendas to pursue and dependents to satisfy.. The gross domestic product of Saudi Arabia fluctuates dramatically according to the price of oil (see below). Qatar was already in a period of deflation, which has continued, and the other Gulf states have only been experiencing very mild inflation.  Moreover, SAGIA's data indicate that licenses provided to foreign investment have been increased by 130% in the first quarter or 2018 as a result to the current reforms in economy. At the start of 2019, the GCC’s two largest economies, Saudi Arabia and UAE, suddenly fell into deflation. In brief. Saudi Arabia is part of the following trade organizations: Among the challenges to Saudi economy include halting or reversing the decline in per capita income, improving education to prepare youth for the workforce and providing them with employment, diversifying the economy, stimulating the private sector and housing construction, diminishing corruption and inequality.  For example, Gulf Cooperation Council ('GCC') nationals and GCC companies have certain rights to own land, subject to a number of restrictions.  Budgetary deficits developed, and the government drew down its foreign assets.  Authors of the video claim that 22% of Saudis are considered to be poor (2009) and 70% of Saudis do not own their houses.  Upon completion in 2015–16, the Ras Tanura integrated refinery and petrochemicals project will become the world's largest petrochemical facility of its kind with a combined production capacity of 11 million tons per year of different petrochemical and chemical products. We are pleased to present our analysis on the budget statement for the fiscal year 2019, announced on Tuesday, 18 December 2018. Welcome to KPMG Saudi Arabia’s first ever budget report for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Rich Saudis are reluctant to invest within the kingdom due to the fear of triggering government scrutiny. Petroleum in Saudi Arabia is not only plentiful but under pressure and close to the earth's surface. Business confidence surveys signal continued expansion in Q2. publication October 9, 2019 Saudi Arabia's Economic Update — October 2019 The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia implemented significant cuts in oil production in 2019, as part of an OPEC+ agreement. The electrical and electronic market was estimated to be around $3.5 billion in 2004. In recent decades the government has begun to permit private sector and foreign investor participation in sectors such as power generation and telecom, and acceded to the WTO. , The seventh plan (2000–2004) focuses more on economic diversification and a greater role of the private sector in the Saudi economy. This makes it far cheaper and thus far more profitable to extract petroleum in Saudi Arabia than in many other places. Saudi Arabia Economic Statistics 2019 | International ... ... … , In 2018, an imposition of 5% value-added tax brought the private-sector growth to a halt.  On 11 May 2020, the government announced that it would threefold the kingdom’s VAT on goods and services, raising it from a current 5% to 15%.  Observers researching the issue prefer to stay anonymous because of the risk of being arrested, like Feras Boqna. , In 2008, the "Initiative for Saudi Agricultural Investment Abroad" was launched, leading to extensive billion-dollar purchases of large tracts of land around the world: Ethiopia, Indonesia, Mali, Senegal, Sudan and others. Real estate plays a fundamental role in the country's non-oil economy. ", According to another source (scholar David Commins), the kingdom depends "on huge numbers of expatriates workers to fill technical and administrative positions" in part because of an educational system that in spite of "generous budgets", has suffered from "poorly trained teachers, low retention rates, lack of rigorous standards, weak scientific and technical instruction and excessive attention to religious subjects". Saudi Arabia was a subsistence economy until the 1930s. Together, the three projects will employ more than 150,000 technicians and engineers working around the clock. Saudi Arabia sits on approximately 20% of the planet's known oil reserves, and it is this oil that constitutes the bulk of the kingdom's natural …  Development of oil fields continued in Saudi Arabia, managed mainly by Aramco, company formed by the partnership of Texaco and Chevron. Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 06:41. The last Article IV Executive Board Consultation was on July 10, 2019. , Saudi oil reserves are the second largest in the world, and Saudi Arabia is the world's leading oil exporter and second largest producer. ", "Africa up for grabs, Saudi Arabia takes its share", "Land grabbers: Africa's hidden revolution", "King Abdullah's Initiative for Saudi Agricultural Investment Abroad: A way of enhancing Saudi food security", "What you should know about Saudi investment in African farmland", "KSA Business: Saudi REITs market worth over $2bn in Q1", "Value of Saudi real estate deals drops 24%", "Real Estate Ownership and Investment in Saudi Arabia", "Overview of Saudi Real Estate Laws and Practice", "Knight Frank expands reach with opening of Saudi Arabian office", "Real Estate Investment Traded Funds – REITs", "Cabinet gives go-ahead for businesses to open 24/7 in Saudi Arabia", "New head of foreign trade thanks King for his trust", "Saudi Arabia nominates candidate to head WTO: document", "SAUDI ARABIA –MEASURES CONCERNINGTHE PROTECTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS", "WTO Urged To Reject Saudi Arabia's Nominee For Director General", "Nigerian, South Korean make last round of WTO chief race – sources", "Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Member information", "Membership of Key Economies in International Organisations", "The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of The Gulf – Secretariat General", "Longform's Picks of the Week [Will Saudi Arabia Ever Change? Most Saudis with jobs are employed by the government, but the International Monetary Fund has warned the government cannot support such a large wage bill in the long term. source: World Bank. This belief is more prominent among respondents in Saudi Arabia (39%)..  As a result of the oil glut and the pressures of declines in production, after 1985 Saudi Arabia began enforcing production quotas more harshly for OPEC members. The GDP value of Saudi Arabia represents 0.66 percent of the world economy. We will allocate prime areas within cities for educational institutions, retail, and entertainment centres, large areas along our coasts will be dedicated to tourist projects and appropriate lands will be allocated for industrial projects. , Saudi Arabia has announced plans to invest about $47 billion in three of the world's largest and most ambitious petrochemical projects. A report released by the Financial Action Task Force on 24 September 2018, says, "Saudi Arabia is not effectively investigating and prosecuting individuals involved in larger scale or professional [money laundering] activity" and is "not effectively confiscating the proceeds of crime". 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Almost two-thirds of Saudi nationals work in the public sector, while the private sector continues to struggle to create jobs for locals despite new policies of expat levies and expat-dependent fees aimed at encouraging Saudization. Saudi Arabia: GDP contracts deeply in Q2 as both the oil and non-oil sectors reel. GDP per capita (PPP) shrunk by 0.8% on average during the 1980s, grew 2.1% during the 1990s and 4.4% during the 2000s.
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