, In 1516, Baalbek was conquered with the rest of Syria by the Ottoman sultan Selim the Grim. The Umayyad mosque in the town, built on the former forum, is one of the oldest places of worship of the Islamic world. well sahara formation started 7 million years ago, and forget about rome.  The revived settlement was again destroyed by a flood on 10 May 1318, when water from the east and northeast made holes 30 m (98 ft) wide in walls 4 m (13 ft) thick. "Current survey and interpretation, show that a pre-Roman floor level about 5 m lower than the late Great Roman Courtyard floor existed underneath".  It was expected at the time that natural disasters, winter frosts, and the raiding of building materials by the city's residents would shortly ruin the remaining ruins. When the complex fell into disrepair, the Temple of Bacchus was possibly protected by the rubble of the rest of â¦  It was known in the 19th century as El Barbara or Barbarat el-Atikah (St Barbara's), having been used as a Greek Orthodox church into the 18th century.  By the early 14th century, Abulfeda the Hamathite was describing the city's "large and strong fortress". For this, 16-cornered stones are made which are called Guru Pooja Peetas which are unique to yogic culture. He was forced to relinquish it to Nur ad-Din in 1154 after Ayyub had successfully intrigued against Abaq from his estates near Baalbek.  It lies about 150 yd (140 m) from the southeast corner of the Temple of Bacchus. (The 6th-century chronicles of John Malalas of Antioch, which claimed Baalbek as a "wonder of the world", credited most of the complex to the 2nd-century Antoninus Pius, but it is uncertain how reliable his account is on the point. Now in attempting to identify the true origin of the constructions at Baalbek we are told by Academics that in 27 BC, the Roman emperor Augustus supposedly came to the rather unfathomable decision to build what is absolutely and irrefutably the grandest, mightiest and most lavish temple built in of all antiquity and to do so in what is quite literally, the middle of nowhere. Some curious facts about the Baalbek temple are that you will see stone lotuses carved on the templeâs ceilings. The staircase is shown intact on a coin from the reign of the, The inscriptions were distinct in the 18th century, [I. In Greek and Roman antiquity, it was known as Heliopolis. And we know from other retaining walls of similar size, built by the Romans at the same time and in the same area, time, that they were more than capable of moving and placing stones of that size and shape, also evidenced by their ability to move Obelisks. One would assume that the largest Roman temple ever built would be in Rome, but it is in fact the Middle East that is home to the biggest Roman temple complex in the world. Baalbek has been continuously inhabited since the Neolithic Period, due to its ideal geography.  The Julio-Claudian emperors enriched its sanctuary in turn. Macrobius later credited the site's foundation to a colony of Egyptian or Assyrianpriests. Cain, the son of Adam, built it in the year 133 of the creation, during a fit of raving madness.  An attempt to pledge fealty to the Christians at Jerusalem was ignored on behalf of an existing treaty with Saladin.  The French general Georges Catroux proclaimed the independence of Lebanon in 1941 but colonial rule continued until 1943. The emperor Trajan consulted the site's oracle twice. , The Temple of Jupiter—once wrongly credited to Helios—lay at the western end of the Great Court, raised another 7 m (23 ft) on a 47.7 m × 87.75 m (156.5 ft × 287.9 ft) platform reached by a wide staircase. , Baalbek was called Heliopolis during the Roman Empire, a latinisation of the Greek Hēlioúpolis (Ἡλιούπολις) used during the Hellenistic Period, Baalbek Temple â Lebanon's Ancient Yogic Connection. The Shiite ‘Usayran family, for example, is also said to have left Baalbek in this period to avoid expropriation by the Harfushes, establishing itself as one of the premier commercial households of Sidon and later even serving as consuls of Iran. Definitely not people who are thinking of just money and bread. Baalbek was connected to the DHP, the French-owned railway concession in Ottoman Syria, on 19 June 1902.  In Greek religion, Helios was both the sun in the sky and its personification as a god.  The architrave and frieze blocks weigh up to 60 tonnes (66 tons) each, and one corner block over 100 tonnes (110 tons), all of them raised to a height of 19 m (62.34 ft) above the ground. al-Jazeera and other sources claimed the IDF was attempting to capture senior Hezbollah officials, particularly Sheikh Mohammad Yazbek. In the Latin rite, the Ancient diocese was only nominally restored (no later than 1876) as Titular archbishopric of Heliopolis (Latin) / Eliopoli (Curiate Italian), demoted in 1925 to Episcopal Titular bishopric, promoted back in 1932, with its name changed (avoiding Egyptian confusion) in 1933 to (non-Metropolitan) Titular archbishopric of Heliopolis in Phoenicia. 5000 years ago, the Sahara was still in the process of becoming the desert we know today, so it's likely elephants would have been more common.  In December, Zengi negotiated with Muhammad, offering to trade Baalbek or Homs for Damascus, but Unur convinced the atabeg to refuse. Despite finding nothing they could date prior to Baalbek's Roman occupation, Puchstein and his associates worked until 1904 and produced a meticulously researched and thoroughly illustrated series of volumes. And yet you made a comment/Share ..very funny.. No one knows.  It is the best preserved of the sanctuary's structures, as the other rubble from its ruins protected it. Baalbek is located in the northern part of the Beqaa plain, near to the Syrian border.  A westward-facing basilica was constructed over the altar during the reign of Theodosius; it was later altered to make it eastward-facing like most Christian churches. The ruins are the â¦ There is a brief description near the bottom of the page on Wikipedia's Baalbek page. An Isha meditator talks about her experience of visiting the Baalbek monument in Lebanon, and about her realization that this was in fact a temple constructed by yogis a long time ago.  The interior of the temple is divided into a 98 ft (30 m) nave and a 36 ft (11 m) adytum or sanctuary on a platform raised 5 ft (2 m) above it and fronted by 13 steps. Finds included pottery sherds including a spout dating to the early Bronze Age. Now that will be great, wouldn't it, May Grace be with you. Many of the ruins still visible and under investigation are from Roman times. And greek army never heard of elephants until they faced purushotham. In addition, earthquakes, storms and natural forces continued to tear the site apart until 1898.  Much of the portico was incorporated into a huge wall directly before its gate, but this was demolished in July 1870 by Barker[who?] The gods that were worshipped there (Jupiter, Venus, and Bacchus) were equivalents of the Canaanite deities Hadad, Atargatis. In Catholicism, its titular see is distinguished as Heliopolis in Phoenicia, from its former Roman province Phoenice.  It was well-watered both from a stream running from the Rās-el-ʿAin spring SE of the citadel and, during the spring, from numerous rills formed by meltwater from the Anti-Lebanons. Who Built Baalbek Temple in Lebanon?  Its weight, often exaggerated, is estimated at 1,000 tonnes (1,100 tons). Conclusion. In the mid-1st century, Nero built the tower-altar opposite the temple. The stones were used, in the age of the Crusades, to convert the complex into a fortress. Excavation starteâ¦  Baalbek was then granted to his nephew Farrukh Shah, whose family ruled it for the next half-century. ( Wikipedia) One of the most awe-inspiring features of Baalbek are the incredible megalithic foundations of the Temple of Jupiter. Play it befpre yyou go tá§  Toghtekin then gave the town to his son Buri. A few miles from the swamp from which the Litani (the classical Leontes) and the Asi (the upper Orontes) flow, Baalbek may be the same as the manbaa al-nahrayn ("Source of the Two Rivers"), the abode of El in the Ugaritic Baal Cycle discovered in the 1920s and a separate serpent incantation.  It is Bʿalbik (بْعَلْبِك, is [ˈbʕalbik]) in Lebanese Arabic. They were transported by helicopter and supported by Apache helicopters and unmanned drones, The IDF was acting on information that Goldwasser and Regev were at the hospital. For example, details of the Temple of Bacchus's ceiling inspired a bed and ceiling by Robert Adam and its portico inspired that of St George's in Bloomsbury.  The 1759 earthquakes also damaged the area around the soffit's famed inscription of an eagle, which was entirely covered by the keystone's supporting column.  The Temple of Jupiter proper was circled by a peristyle of 54 unfluted Corinthian columns: 10 in front and back and 19 along each side. , During the 18th century, the western approaches were covered with attractive groves of walnut trees, but the town itself suffered badly during the 1759 earthquakes, after which it was held by the Metawali, who again feuded with other Lebanese tribes. 65 The work in its entirety could not have been his because Lucian, his contemporary, calls the sanctuary of Baalbek already ancient, and because Pompey had already found it in existence and â¦  The columns' bases and capitals were of limestone; the shafts were monoliths of highly polished red Egyptian granite 7.08 m (23.2 ft) high.  Most of the city's still-extant fine mosque and fortress architecture dates to the reign of the sultan Qalawun in the 1280s.  The temple is surrounded by forty-two columns—8 along each end and 15 along each side—nearly 20 m (66 ft) in height.  Having taken control of Damascus on the invitation of its governor Ibn al-Muqaddam, Saladin rewarded him with the emirate of Baalbek following the Ayyubid victory at the Horns of Hama in 1175. It was held by:. In 15 BC, Julius Caesar settled in Baalbek and began the construction of a temple complex consisting of three temples: Jupiter (God of sky and thunder), Bacchus (God of agriculture and wine), and Venus (God of love and beauty).  Macrobius later credited the site's foundation to a colony of Egyptian or Assyrian priests.  On August 14, just before the ceasefire took effect, two Lebanese police and five Lebanese soldiers were killed by a drone strike while driving their van around the still-damaged road through Jamaliyeh. In Islamic mythology, the temple complex was said to have been a palace of Solomon's[d] which was put together by djinn and given as a wedding gift to the Queen of Sheba; its actual Roman origin remained obscured by the citadel's medieval fortifications as late as the 16th-century visit of the Polish prince Radziwiłł. "Here they worshiped not one god but three: Jupiter, Venus and Bacchus. I was told that the traditional way to honor the guru is known as Shodashopachara, or 16 ways of treating a Guru. Daddy answeÐ³ed. [i] Donne hyperbolised "No ruins of antiquity have attracted more attention than those of Heliopolis, or been more frequently or accurately measured and described. Namaste, up until 2000 years ago, Lebanon was famous for its great forests, Sinai was Rome's hunting ground to capture animals for the arena.  These were surrounded by Corinthian porticoes, one of which was never completed.  Under the Byzantines, it was also known as the "Trilithon" from the three massive stones in its foundation and, when taken together with the forecourt and Great Court, it is also known as the Great Temple. Because this is SADHGURU SPOT. Upon Buri's succession to Damascus on his father's death in 1128, he granted the area to his son Muhammad. The Greeks then added to it, followed by the Romans, and much later the Arabs.  In these statues, the bust of Mercury is made particularly prominent; a marble stela at Massilia in Transalpine Gaul shows a similar arrangement but enlarges Mercury into a full figure. It still possesses some of the best-preserved Roman ruins in Lebanon, including one of the largest temples of the empire.  In the 19th century, a "shell-topped canopy" from the ruins was used nearby as a mihrab, propped up to show locals the direction of Mecca for their daily prayers. Baalbek, Temple of Bacchus, Exterior, Capitals The cult room itself is surrounded by columns that are engaged to the wall; between them, there are two levels of statue niches. is a question you often hear from students or other people regarding history. Guru Pooja is not just an emotional thing, it is a whole system of creating a certain possibility, of creating a field of energy around you so that people become receptive and are drawn to the whole process. The retaining wall was not part of the simple, original, much smaller temple at Baalbek. What if it has a completely unexpected origin?  Following Ata's murder, his nephew Dahhak, emir of the Wadi al-Taym, ruled Baalbek. The Roman construction was built on top of earlier ruins which were formed into a raised plaza, formed of twenty-four monoliths, the largest weighing over 800 tons.  It was pronounced as Baʿlabakk (Arabic: بَعْلَبَكّ) in Classical Arabic. ", List of ancient architectural records § Monoliths, Melkite Greek Catholic Archeparchy of Baalbek, Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Constantinople, "Adam's Bed: 16 Varieties of (Im)propriety", "Cleanup to Start at Old Sites in Lebanon", "Titular See of Heliopolis in Phœnicia, Lebanon", Baumgarten, Martin von (Martinus à Baumgarten in Braitenbach), Belon, Pierre (Petrus Bellonius Cenomanus), De Saulcy, Louis Félicien Joseph Caignart, "Alliances and Treaties between Frankish and Muslim Rulers in the Middle East: Cross-Cultural Diplomacy in the Period of the Crusades", Marmont, Auguste-Frédéric-Louis Viesse de, Quaresmio, Francisco (Franciscus Quaresmius), Radziwiłł, Mikołaj Krzystof (Nicolaus Christophorus Radzivilus), "State and Rural Society in Medieval Islam: Sultans, Muqtaʿs, and Fallahun", "On the Rise and Fall of Canaanite Religion at Baalbek: A Tale of Five Toponyms", Volney, Constantin François de Chasseboeuf, comte de, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Baalbek&oldid=993087576, Populated places established in the 7th millennium BC, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2015, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from September 2015, Articles with Greek-language sources (el), Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2013, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from January 2017, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2017, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2015, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with Classical Syriac-language sources (syc), Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Titular Archbishop: Luigi Poggi (1876.09.29 – death 1877.01.22) on emeritate (promoted) as former Bishop of, Titular Archbishop: Augustinus Accoramboni (1896.06.22 – death 1899.05.17), without prelature, Titular Archbishop: Robert John Seton (1903.06.22 – 1927.03.22), without prelature, Titular Archbishop: Daniel Rivero Rivero (1951 – death 1960.05.23) (born Bolivia) on emeritate, formerly Titular Bishop of, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 18:42.  In the summer of 2014, a team from the German Archaeological Institute led by Jeanine Abdul Massih of the Lebanese University discovered a sixth, much larger stone suggested to be the world's largest ancient block.  His former regent, Raymond of Tripoli, raided the Beqaa Valley from the west in the summer, suffering a slight defeat at Ibn al-Muqaddam's hands. But when I later came to India, I saw that the lotus is the most common symbolism of spirituality here.  Heliopolis was a noted oracle and pilgrimage site, whence the cult spread far afield, with inscriptions to the Heliopolitan god discovered in Athens, Rome, Pannonia, Venetia, Gaul, and near the Wall in Britain. > Its provenance is more shadowy than one might expect â¦ Baalbek is named for Baal, the Phoenician deity, although the Romans knew the site by its Greek name, Heliopolis. This would explain the use of the massive Platform stones and also resolve the question of the source of the technology required to move the giant stones used to build Baalbek. I have visited the place several times and enjoyed long walks through the ruins, but it was not until my pursuit of yoga that I found revealing connections to other civilizations.  The ruined temple complex was fortified under the name al-Qala‘ (lit. , Three major earthquakes occurred in the 12th century, in 1139, 1157, and 1170.  Bahram Shah replaced that era's southwest tower with one of his own in 1213 and built another in the northwest in 1224; the west tower was probably strengthened around the same time.  An inscription dates the barbican-like strengthening of the southern entrance to around 1240. Comes every Thursday. The lotus is the most common symbolism of spirituality in India.  In bronze statuary attested from Byblos in Phoenicia and Tortosa in Spain, he was encased in a pillarlike term and surrounded (like the Greco-Persian Mithras) by busts representing the sun, moon, and five known planets.  In July 1139, Zengi, atabeg of Aleppo and stepfather of Mahmud, besieged Baalbek with 14 catapults. Baalbek is an incredible monument, standing on a hill in the Bekaa valley in Lebanon. , The temple complex was entered from the east through the Propylaeum (προπύλαιον, propýlaion) or Portico, consisting of a broad staircase rising 20 feet (6.1 m) to an arcade of 12 columns flanked by 2 towers. In 1701, Eastern Catholics (Byzantine Rite) established anew an Eparchy of Baalbek, which in 1964 was promoted to the present Melkite Greek Catholic Archeparchy of Baalbek. Web. Elephants are indeed naive to west asians then. It has been proposed that it was the site of religious/cultic activities during the Iron Age. Just from experiencing it i learnt a lot about the naked babas and how stupid I really am.  The hospital had been empty for four days, the most unwell patients having been transferred and the rest sent home.  Its enviable position in a fertile valley, major watershed, and along the route from Tyre to Palmyra should have made it a wealthy and splendid site from an early age. It was granted to the eunuch Ata al-Khadim, who also served as viceroy of Damascus.  Zengi strengthened its fortifications and bestowed the territory on his lieutenant Ayyub, father of Saladin.  The site of the present Temple of Jupiter was probably the focus of earlier worship, as its altar was located at the hill's precise summit and the rest of the sanctuary raised to its level. The local Semitic god Baʿal Haddu was more often equated with Zeus or Jupiter or simply called the "Great God of Heliopolis",[b] but the name may refer to the Egyptians' association of Baʿal with their great god Ra.  It is enriched by some of the most refined reliefs and sculpture to survive from antiquity.  This includes the great southeast tower.  During the Canaanite period, the local temples were largely devoted to the Heliopolitan Triad: a male god (Baʿal), his consort (Ashtart), and their son (Adon). Called Heliopolis by Roman settlers, there was an explosion of development that began around â¦ ANTONIN[I PII FELICIS...]. " Misunderstanding the temple of Bacchus as the "Temple of the Sun", they considered it the best-preserved Roman temple in the world. (a note of caution the water gives you brain freeze hahaha and i was get chance live there one month with guruji,thanx my guruji shri shri shri 1008 Mahamandleswar swami Alakhgiriji majaraj, The image of the six petal lotus in a star inscribed on a stone found in the remains @Baalbek. Obviously there was a very active commercial and spiritual connection between the two lands. Among the roof stones, there is a clear anahata symbol, with 6 petals and two interlocking triangles. Conquered in 634 by the Arab general Abu 'Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Baalbek received its original name again; on seventh-century coins, it is called Ba'labakk.  The Roman temple complex grew up from the early part of the reign of Augustus in the late 1st century BC until the rise of Christianity in the 4th century. UNESCO describes the site as âone of the most famous sanctuaries of the Roman world and a model of Imperial Roman architectureâ. I really dislike to see sharing of people except Sadhguru! However, what is seen on the site nowadays is generallâ¦ The Story of Gnana Sambandarâs Enlightenment, Sadhguru tells us the story of Sambandar, one of the Nayanmars, who created a situation at his wedding where all the guests attained to the ultimate!â¦.  The population likely varied seasonally with market fairs and the schedules of the Indian monsoon and caravans to the coast and interior.. [j] These walls were built from about 24 monoliths, at their lowest level weighing approximately 300 tonnes (330 tons) each. It is said that they were moved with the help of elephants, but people donât give much credence to this as there are no elephants in West Asia. "Our temple was the biggest ever built by the Romans.  Their capitals remain nearly perfect on the south side, while the Beqaa's winter winds have worn the northern faces almost bare. Such a thing exists nowhere else on the planet, but in Baalbek there is a Guru Pooja stone that is thousands of years old. It is the capital of Baalbek-Hermel Governorate.  Later excavations under the Roman flagstones in the Great Court unearthed three skeletons and a fragment of Persian pottery dated to the 6th–4th centuries BC. Moving the trilithon in to place today would require the effort of some of the worldâs most powerful cranes, yet in the time of its alleged construction, the stones were somehow situated through primitive means so precisely, that one has difficulty slipping a sheet of paper between them today. Baalbek has a mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa) with significant continental influences.  Over the years, it has suffered from the region's numerous earthquakes, the iconoclasm of Christian and Muslim lords, and the reuse of the temples' stone for fortification and other construction.  Traces remain of the two series of columns which once encircled it, but its original function remains uncertain.  194 people were killed and 1500 houses, 131 shops, 44 orchards, 17 ovens, 11 mills, and 4 aqueducts were ruined, along with the town's mosque and 13 other religious and educational buildings. I have yet to see this myself. The Greeks then added to it, followed by the Romans, and much later the Arabs. , From the 16th century, European tourists began to visit the colossal and picturesque ruins. Children in Lebanon schools study that Indian labor, elephants, sculptors and yogis constructed this.  Around the year 400, Rabbula, the future bishop of Edessa, attempted to have himself martyred by disrupting the pagans of Baalbek but was only thrown down the temple stairs along with his companion. It was inscribed in 1984 as an UNESCO World Heritage site. , The rectangular Great Court to its west covers around 3 or 4 acres (1.2 or 1.6 ha) and included the main altar for burnt offering, with mosaic-floored lustration basins to its north and south, a subterranean chamber, and three underground passageways 17 ft (5.2 m) wide by 30 ft (9.1 m) high, two of which run east and west and the third connecting them north and south, all bearing inscriptions suggesting their occupation by Roman soldiers. 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